what do you mean by computer memory very short answer
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what do you mean by computer memory
what do you mean by computer memory:-Devices used to temporarily or permanently store data or programs for usage in a computer are referred to as computer memory. A piece of information or code loaded into a computer’s memory is referred to as storage. It is a vital part of every contemporary computer when combined with a central processor unit. The memory unit provides a location for storing the data and instructions needed for the central processor unit to process the input data.
The CPU’s memory unit is made up of many cells referred to as locations. An address is a special label that uniquely identifies a place and is used to contain instructions or data. Using memory addresses, the CPU maintains track of all data and program instructions. Binary code, which is composed of sequences of 0 and 1, is used by computers to represent information. In this code, P stands for a on state and 70 for an off state in a circuit.
Data storage at a location is referred to as “Write,” while data retrieval at a location is referred to as “Read.” Word length is the maximum number of bits that each location can have. Words can have lengths of 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits. The smallest binary digit is called a bit. An arrangement of binary numbers is called a word. The unit of memory is called a byte, which is made up of seven bits in ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) and eight bits in EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code).
Types of Memory(what do you mean by computer memory)
2- secondary memory (what do you mean by computer memory)
- Hard disk
- CD ROM
- Pen Drive
- Floppy Disk
The term “memory” typically refers to Random-Access Memory (RAM), a type of semiconductor storage, as well as occasionally other quick-access temporary storage options. It is a location within the computer system where programs and data are temporarily kept in internal storage sections of the machine. The term “memory” refers to data storage that is included in chips.
Similarly, mass storage like optical discs, magnetic storage types like hard disk drives, and other types lower than RAM to store permanent nature device that a computer utilizes to store information are more often referred to as storage today. Main memory and secondary storage were the names given to memory and storage, respectively. When it comes to cost, dependability, and speed, storage and memory are not the same.
Primary or Main Memory or Semiconductor Memory or Internal Memory
The term “computer memory” typically refers to the semiconductor technology utilized in electronic devices to store data. Today’s primary computer memory uses integrated circuits (ICs) made of transistors based on silicon.
There are primarily two kinds of memory. Both volatile and stable. Unlike non-volatile memory, which doesn’t need a continuous power source, volatile memory in computers needs power to preserve the data it has stored.
Random Access Memory, or RAM, is a type of volatile memory. It is the kind of memory that computers use the most frequently. It collaborates with the CPU to store data and instructions for processing. It is the initial location where instructions and data are entered, processed information is stored there, and then the information is returned to an output device. But because it needs a constant supply of electrical energy, it can only store data for a short while. Data is lost if the current is interrupted. It enables data to be read and written at random rather than sequentially, which speeds up data read and write operations. RAM comes in capacities of 64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB, and 1 GB.
There are two types of RAM Dynamic RAM and Static RAM
(A) Dynamic RAM:-Its contents must be continuously refreshed. Even while the computer is operating, it quickly loses its content. It is less expensive than SRAM, or static RAM.
(B) Static RAM:-It doesn’t need to be refreshed. It keeps its content until the computer stops. Compared to dynamic RAM (DRAM), it is faster.
Data that is regularly accessed can be temporarily stored in a speedier, more expensive storage region called a cache. After being saved in the cache, the data can be accessed in the future without having to be recalculated by using the cached copy. Caches are regularly used by the hard drive and CPU. The processor initially determines if a copy of the data is in the cache before attempting to read from or write to a place in main memory. In that case, the processor reads from or writes to the cache right away, using a lot less time than it would if it were reading from or writing to main memory.
Non Volatile Memory
ROM (Read Only Memory):-It doesn’t fluctuate. Recall It contains read-only data and instructions that can only be changed or erased. Frequently, it is utilized to store program instructions that don’t need to be changed. It is a section of the computer’s internal storage. Is the chip on the motherboard silicon? which instructions are burnt during manufacturing .
The computer’s stored instructions started automatically when it was turned on, and they did not get lost when it was turned off. The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) is the name of these persistent instructions that are kept in ROM. The BIOS on a computer holds all the instructions needed to operate the keyboard, screen, disk drives, serial connection, and several other peripheral devices. Every time the machine boots up, the BIOS is replicated from ROM RAM. Shadowing is the term for this.
Firmware in computing refers to the combination of data contained in it, pre-installed computer code, and read-only memory. Hardware and software are combined to create firmware. Digital cameras, mobile phones, computers, computer peripherals, and embedded systems are typical examples of devices that contain firmware. The control program for these devices is provided by the firmware that is inside of them. Firmware is the data or programs stored on computer chips. Non-volatile memory devices including flash memory, EPROM, PROM, and ROM store firmware.
PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory):-This memory is nonvolatile. Instructions in the PROM can only burn once before being irrevocable. Following that, it functions like ROM.
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory):-Similar to PROM, it is a nonvolatile memory, however burning can be stopped by exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Strong UV light exposure has the ability to delete it and then rewrite it. Another name for it is UV EPROM.
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory):-It is a non-volatile, comparable to EPROM, but it may be burned again by subjecting it to electric pulses. It is possible to electrically wipe it and then rewrite it. in order to avoid having to erase them from the computer.
Secondary or Auxiliary Memory
Since the main memory has a finite capacity and is volatile, data must be stored in a more affordable and long-lasting format. Secondary memory is the name given to this type of storage. Secondary storage, sometimes referred to as auxiliary or backing store memory, retains data even when the device is turned off. It doesn’t fluctuate.
When not needed, data that the CPU does not currently require is copied from backing store into main storage. The operating system uses the same block size, or pages, to retrieve data from secondary storage. Magnetic tape and magnetic disk are the storage media that are most frequently employed as backing stores. It differs from primary storage in that the CPU cannot access it directly.
A hard disk is a magnetic disk used for storing huge amounts of data that can be accessed reasonably quickly. Comparatively speaking, it offers more capacity and dependability than other kinds of disk drives. In reality, a hard drive is a collection of many stacked platters. These all have the appearance of vintage song records.
A disk pack is formed by mounting each platter on a vertical shaft. With the exception of the top and bottom platters, all surfaces of the units in a pack are used for recording. Only the inner surfaces of the top and bottom platters have data recorded on them. Two read and write heads are needed for the Bach platter, one for each platter, or track. The amount of tracks on each platter is the same. Every track is separated into sectors, and each sector has a set quantity of data stored in it. Formatting is the process of partitioning a disk into sectors and tracks. As a result, data and information can be stored and found on disk by the operating systems.
Data access or writing becomes extremely quick because to the read/write head’s ability to read and write data directly to any track. It is frequently referred to as the C drive in a computer since it is enclosed into a single module with read/write heads to protect it from the elements and any blemishes. The hard disk contains all of the computer’s installed programs and data. Hard drive capacities for computers today range from 10 GB to 80 GB.
A hard disk is a magnetic disk used for storing huge amounts of data that can be accessed reasonably quickly. Comparatively speaking, it offers more capacity and dependability than other kinds of disk drives. In reality, a hard drive is a collection of many stacked platters. These all appear to be vintage vinyl records.
It is an information-holding soft magnetic disc that is detachable. To keep it safe from dust and scratches, the disk is placed inside an envelope. Data on the disk’s surface is retrieved or recorded via an envelope slot. The read/write head of the majority of disk drives is in direct contact with the disk surface. The head lifts away to lessen any damage to the disk after reading and writing. It has less storage space and is slower to access than hard disks, but it is far less expensive. Most importantly, they are the most widely used type of backing store and are portable. This memory is external.
There are three common sizes for floppy disks:
(i) 8-inch: The first floppy disk design. The typical desktop/laptop computer does not use the 8-inch floppy disk.
(ii) 514-inch: This is the standard size for personal computers and the floppy disk that preceded 8-inch ones. Generally speaking, it can hold 100K to 1.2MB of data. 360K and 1.2MB are the most popular sizes
(ii) 3½-inch The floppy is enclosed in a hard plastic container.
The most effective backup storage medium is this one. Magnetic tape storage is comparable to cassette tape storage, which is used for recording and storing music. It is typically 2400 to 3600 feet long and half an inch broad. It is composed of laror polyester.
Compared to punched cards and paper cassettes, magnetic tape has a massive data storage capacity. It can be used again to store data by recording, editing, and deleting the previous data. To read and write data on magnetic tape, a magnetic tape drive is required. There are two tape reels in every magnetic tape drive. The terms “file reel” and “take up reel” refer to the two reels that hold the tape that needs to be read and written.
4-CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory)
A CD-ROM, commonly known as an optical disk, has a maximum data storage capacity of 1GB, while the most typical size is 650MB. Using a laser, data is permanently written on the optical disk’s surface. At the time of manufacture, the laser burns a hole in the disk’s surface, making it impossible for users to alter or remove the recorded content.
The data stored on the disk is read by a low-intensity laser beam. A CD-Writer is required to write data on the CD and a CD-Drive is required to access data from the CD. It is also known as a WORM (Write Once Read Many) disk because, although data can be read from a CD several times, it cannot be modified. There are other optical disks that can be erased. Large software programs that support color, graphics, sound, and video are among the types of information that CD-ROMs are especially good at storing.
5-CD-R/W (Compact Disc Read/Write)
Another type of optical disk is CD-R/W. Using a laser, data is recorded on the optical disk’s surface, but it is erasable. It takes a CD-R/W drive to access the data on the CD.
6-DVD: DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disk or Digital Video disk
It operates similarly to a CD-ROM. It has two or three layers of data that can be stored on either of its single or double sides. It can hold a minimum of 4.37 GB of data or an entire high-definition DVD-video movie, complete with multiple audio tracks in Dolby Digital and stereo formats, sophisticated menu systems, subtitles, and still images. Most computer DVD-ROMs and DVD players can play it. A double-layered, double-sided DVD has 17 GB of audio and video storage capacity.
It appears to be a small key ring. The majority of pen drives are compatible with normal USB (Universal Serial Bus) connections, which enable them to be plugged into computer ports. A USB pen drive functions as a little disk drive and facilitates the effortless transfer of data between devices. It operates in a very basic manner. It functions quickly as well. It is made up of a USB-integrated Bash memory data storage device.
Usually, it is rewriteable and detachable. The device’s storage capacities vary from 64 MB to 256 GB due to its recent release. Another name for it is Flash drive. This is an illustration of an EEPROM. USB pen drives are frequently used for storing and transporting private material, including documents, images, and videos. Information about medical alerts can also be saved for use in an emergency or as a catastrophe plan.
It’s also known as flash RAM at times. It is a type of non-volatile computer storage that can be reprogrammed and electronically erased. Digital set-top boxes, digital cameras, and cell phones are among the devices that use it.
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